Pelvic Organ Prolapse

What is Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)?

Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) occurs when the pelvic floor muscles and tissues weaken, causing pelvic organs such as the bladder, uterus, rectum, or intestines to protrude into the vaginal canal. This condition can range from mild to severe, impacting a woman’s quality of life and daily activities.

Types of Pelvic Organ Prolapse

There are several types of POP, each determined by the specific organ that has dropped due to weakened pelvic floor muscles:

  • Anterior vaginal wall prolapse: This is the most common type. The bladder bulges into the front wall of the vagina, sometimes accompanied by the urethra (urethrocele).
  • Posterior vaginal wall prolapse: The rectum bulges into the back wall of the vagina. This is called a rectocele.
  • Enterocele: The small intestine pushes into the top or back wall of the vagina.
  • Uterine prolapse: The uterus descends into the vagina.
  • Vaginal vault prolapse: This occurs after a hysterectomy, where the top part of the vagina (vaginal vault) bulges down.

Symptoms of Pelvic Organ Prolapse

  • Pelvic pressure or heaviness.
  • Vaginal bulging.
  • Urinary incontinence.
  • Difficulty emptying the bladder or bowel.
  • Sexual dysfunction.
  • Pelvic pain.

When to see a doctor?

If you notice any of the symptoms of POP mentioned above impacting your daily life or causing discomfort, it’s vital to reach out to a healthcare provider. Your well-being is paramount, and seeking medical attention promptly can ensure you receive the support and care you need.

Questions to ask your doctor regarding Pelvic Organ Prolapse

During your consultation with a healthcare provider, consider asking questions such as:

  • What are the treatment options available for my condition?
  • What are the potential risks and benefits of each treatment?
  • How will this condition affect my daily life and activities?
  • Are there any lifestyle changes or self-care measures that can help manage POP?

Causes of Pelvic Organ Prolapse

  • Childbirth
  • Aging
  • Menopause
  • Chronic constipation.
  • Connective tissue disorders.

Complications of Pelvic Organ Prolapse

  • Urinary tract infections.
  • Urinary retention.
  • Faecal incontinence.
  • Sexual dysfunction.
  • Psychological distress.

Diagnosis of Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Diagnosis of POP typically involves a combination of medical history review, physical examination, and sometimes imaging tests.

  • Medical history review: Your healthcare provider will ask you about your symptoms, medical history, and any previous pelvic surgeries or pregnancies. They may inquire about symptoms like pelvic pressure, a feeling of fullness in the vagina, urinary incontinence, or difficulty with bowel movements.
  • Physical examination: During a pelvic exam, your healthcare provider will visually inspect your pelvic area and may perform a pelvic floor muscle assessment. They will also assess the degree of prolapse by asking you to bear down or strain, which helps them gauge the extent of the prolapse.
  • Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) exam: This is a standardized method used to measure the degree of pelvic organ prolapse. It involves the use of a special ruler or other instruments to measure the descent of specific pelvic organs in relation to anatomical landmarks within the vagina.
  • Imaging tests: In some cases, imaging tests such as pelvic ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used to provide additional information about the extent of the prolapse and to identify any associated conditions, such as bladder or bowel abnormalities.

Treatment of Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)

The treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) depends on several factors including the severity of the prolapse, symptoms experienced, and the individual’s overall health and preferences. Treatment options may include:

  • Pelvic floor exercises (Kegel exercises): These exercises strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor, which can help support the pelvic organs and improve symptoms of POP. A pelvic floor physical therapist can provide guidance on performing Kegel exercises correctly.
  • Pessaries: These are devices inserted into the vagina to provide support for the pelvic organs and alleviate symptoms of POP. Pessaries come in different shapes and sizes, and they can be fitted by a healthcare provider to suit individual needs. Regular follow-up appointments are necessary to monitor the fit and effectiveness of the pessary.
  • Hormone therapy: Estrogen therapy, either in the form of vaginal estrogen creams or hormone replacement therapy (HRT), may be recommended for postmenopausal women with POP. Estrogen helps to maintain the strength and elasticity of vaginal tissues, which can reduce symptoms of POP.
  • Surgery: In cases where conservative measures are ineffective or the prolapse is severe, surgery may be recommended. Surgical options for POP include:
    • Vaginal repair: This involves repairing and reinforcing the weakened pelvic floor muscles and tissues through incisions made in the vaginal wall.
    • Hysterectomy: If the prolapse involves the uterus, removing the uterus (hysterectomy) may be necessary as part of the surgical treatment.
    • Mesh implants: Synthetic mesh implants may be used to support the pelvic organs during surgery. However, the use of mesh in pelvic organ prolapse repair is controversial and has been associated with complications in some cases. The decision to use mesh should be carefully discussed with a healthcare provider.

Why choose Shukan Hospital & IVF Centre in Ahmedabad for Pelvic Organ Prolapse treatment?

At Shukan Hospital & IVF Centre, we offer:

  • Experienced gynecologists specializing in pelvic floor disorders.
  • Comprehensive diagnostic and treatment options tailored to individual needs.
  • State-of-the-art facilities and advanced surgical techniques for optimal outcomes.

Prevention of Pelvic Organ Prolapse

  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Practice good bowel habits.
  • Perform pelvic floor exercises.
  • Avoid heavy lifting.
  • Manage chronic cough.
  • Attend regular gynecological check-ups.


Is pelvic organ prolapse a common condition?

Yes, pelvic organ prolapse is relatively common, especially among women who have given birth vaginally or are postmenopausal.

Can pelvic organ prolapse affect my ability to have children?

While pelvic organ prolapse itself does not typically affect fertility, it may complicate pregnancy and childbirth, especially if left untreated.

Are there any lifestyle changes that can help manage pelvic organ prolapse symptoms?

Yes, maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding heavy lifting, and practicing good bowel and bladder habits can help manage symptoms and reduce the risk of further prolapse.

Will pelvic organ prolapse go away on its own?

In some cases, mild prolapse symptoms may improve with conservative measures like pelvic floor exercises. However, severe prolapse usually requires medical intervention.

Can pelvic organ prolapse affect sexual activity?

Yes, pelvic organ prolapse can cause discomfort during sexual intercourse, but there are treatment options available to improve symptoms and restore sexual function.

How long does recovery take after pelvic organ prolapse surgery?

Recovery time varies depending on the type of surgery performed and individual factors, but most patients can expect to return to normal activities within 4 to 6 weeks.

Will pelvic organ prolapse come back after surgery?

Recurrence of pelvic organ prolapse after surgery is possible, especially if underlying risk factors are not addressed. However, proper surgical technique and postoperative care can help minimize the risk of recurrence.

Can men develop pelvic organ prolapse?

While pelvic organ prolapse is much more common in women, men can also experience prolapse of the pelvic organs, although it is rare.

Can pelvic organ prolapse affect my ability to exercise or engage in physical activities?

Yes, severe prolapse can affect exercise by causing discomfort. Kegel exercises may help.

Are there any dietary changes that can help manage pelvic organ prolapse symptoms?

A balanced diet with fiber can prevent constipation, which worsens symptoms. Limiting caffeine and alcohol helps bladder irritation.

Can pelvic organ prolapse affect my ability to work or perform daily tasks?

Severe prolapse might affect tasks needing heavy lifting or long standing. Treatment can ease symptoms, allowing normal activities.

Is pelvic organ prolapse hereditary?

While genetics may play a role, prolapse is mainly influenced by childbirth, aging, and lifestyle. Family history may increase risk, but more research is needed.

Can you live normally with a prolapse?

Yes, many women can live normally with a prolapse, especially if it’s mild and doesn’t significantly impact daily life. Treatment options are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Can I push back my prolapse?

While some women may be able to manually reduce or push back a prolapse temporarily, it’s not a long-term solution and may worsen the condition over time. It’s important to consult a healthcare provider for proper evaluation and treatment.

Can my partner feel my prolapse?

It’s unlikely that your partner will feel the prolapse during sexual activity, especially if it’s mild. However, in some cases of severe prolapse, your partner may notice a bulge or protrusion during intercourse. Open communication with your partner and seeking medical advice can help address any concerns.