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What is PCOS?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder affecting women of reproductive age. Characterized by irregular menstrual cycles, elevated levels of male hormones (androgens), and polycystic ovaries, PCOS can lead to various health complications if left untreated.

polycystic ovary syndrome

Types of PCOS

PCOS is often categorized into different types based on symptoms and presentation, such as:

  • Obese, High Androgen type: Characterized by high androgen levels and insulin resistance.
  • Lean, High Androgen type: Characterized by high androgen levels and normal insulin sensitivity.
  • Lean, Normal Androgen type: With normal androgen levels and normal insulin sensitivity.
  • Obese, Normal Androgen type: Characterized by normal androgen levels and insulin resistance.

Symptoms of PCOS

The symptoms of PCOS can vary significantly among women but commonly include:

  • Irregular periods or no periods at all.
  • Excessive hair growth on the face, chest, and back (hirsutism).
  • Acne and oily skin.
  • Thinning of hair or hair loss on the scalp.
  • Weight gain or difficulty losing weight.
  • Darkening of skin, particularly along neck creases, in the groin (the area between the abdomen and the thigh), and underneath breasts.
  • Skin tags.

When to see a doctor?

It is essential to see a doctor if you experience irregular, infrequent, or prolonged menstrual cycles, difficulty in getting pregnancy, symptoms of elevated androgens (such as excess hair growth, severe acne, or male-pattern baldness), or unexplained weight gain. Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Causes of PCOS

The exact cause of PCOS is unknown, but several factors contribute to its development:

  • Genetics: PCOS tends to run in families.
  • Insulin resistance: Many women with PCOS have insulin resistance, leading to higher insulin levels, which can increase androgen production.
  • Hormonal imbalance: Elevated levels of androgens and luteinizing hormone (LH) and lower levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are often observed in women with PCOS.

Complications of PCOS

PCOS can lead to several health complications, including:

  • Infertility.
  • Type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure.
  • Metabolic syndrome.
  • Sleep apnea.
  • Depression and anxiety.
  • Endometrial cancer.


How is PCOS diagnosed?

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, physical findings, and lab tests. The diagnosis process typically involves:

  • Clinical symptoms: PCOS symptoms can vary widely and may include irregular periods, excessive hair growth (hirsutism), acne, weight gain, and thinning of hair on the scalp. These symptoms result from hormonal imbalances.

  • Physical examination: A healthcare provider may assess for physical signs of androgen excess, such as hirsutism, acne, and obesity.

  • Pelvic ultrasound: A pelvic ultrasound may be conducted to visualize the ovaries and detect the presence of multiple cysts, which can indicate PCOS.

  • Hormone testing: Blood tests can measure levels of hormones like luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone. These tests can help determine whether there’s an imbalance that could suggest PCOS.

  • Blood Glucose testing: Testing for insulin resistance and glucose levels might be conducted to assess metabolic health, as PCOS is often associated with insulin resistance.

  • Exclusion of other conditions: Conditions such as thyroid disorders, adrenal gland disorders, and hyperprolactinemia must be ruled out, as they can cause similar symptoms.

The Rotterdam criteria is a commonly used framework for diagnosing PCOS, which requires at least two of the following three criteria: irregular periods, evidence of excess androgens, and polycystic ovaries observed on ultrasound. However, individual healthcare providers may utilize other diagnostic criteria and methods based on a patient’s specific case.

How is PCOS treated?

POCS can be managed with a variety of treatment approaches, depending on the symptoms and the individual’s goals. Common treatment strategies include:

  • Lifestyle changes:
    • Diet: A balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, with limited refined sugars and unhealthy fats, can help manage insulin resistance and promote weight loss.
    • Exercise: Regular physical activity can improve insulin sensitivity, regulate hormones, and support overall health.
  • Medications:
    • Hormonal birth control: Birth control pills can help regulate menstrual cycles and reduce androgen levels, alleviating symptoms like acne and hirsutism.
    • Metformin: This medication can help improve insulin sensitivity and reduce blood sugar levels, which can be beneficial for women who are overweight or have diabetes.
    • Clomiphene Citrate: Used to induce ovulation in women trying to conceive.
    • Spironolactone: An anti-androgen medication that can reduce hirsutism and acne.
  • Fertility treatments:
    • For those looking to conceive, medications like Clomiphene Citrate or Letrozole can stimulate ovulation. In some cases, in vitro fertilization (IVF) may be necessary.
  • Treatment for symptoms:
    • Hair removal: Laser therapy, electrolysis, or other methods to manage unwanted hair growth.
    • Acne treatments: Topical or oral medications to manage acne.
  • Regular monitoring:
    • Regular check-ups with healthcare providers to monitor symptoms and adjust treatment plans.

The specific treatment approach often depends on the individual’s symptoms, reproductive goals, and overall health. A healthcare provider or specialist in endocrinology or gynecology can offer personalized advice and treatment options.

Why choose Shukan Hospital & IVF Centre in Ahmedabad for PCOS treatment?

  • Our experienced medical team specializes in diagnosing and treating PCOS.
  • We provide holistic care, including lifestyle counseling, medical treatments, and fertility solutions.
  • Our state-of-the-art facility ensures the latest and most effective treatments.
  • We tailor our treatment plans to meet each patient’s unique needs and goals.
  • We offer ongoing support and counseling to help manage the physical and emotional aspects of PCOS.

How to prevent PCOS?

While PCOS cannot be entirely prevented, maintaining a healthy lifestyle can help manage and reduce the risk of developing severe symptoms:

  • Regular exercise to maintain a healthy weight.
  • A balanced diet rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins.
  • Regular medical check-ups to monitor and manage health conditions.


Does pcos affect fertility?

Yes, pcos can affect fertility by interfering with ovulation, but many women with PCOS can conceive with appropriate treatment.

What treatments are available for pcos at Shukan Hospital & IVF Centre?

We offer a range of treatments, including lifestyle modifications, medications, fertility treatments like IUI and IVF, and advanced surgical options.

What age does pcos start?

PCOS often begins during puberty, around the time of a woman’s first menstrual cycle, but it can develop later in the reproductive years.

Can I have pcos but not have any symptoms?

Yes, some women with pcos may not exhibit noticeable symptoms, making regular check-ups crucial for early detection and management.

Will pcos ever go away?

pcos is a chronic condition that can be managed effectively, but it does not go away completely.

Can you be in menopause and have pcos?

Yes, pcos persists through menopause, though symptoms may change with the hormonal shifts of menopause.

Can I get pregnant with pcos?

Yes, pcos persists through menopause, though symptoms may change with the hormonal shifts of menopause.

Does pcos put me at risk for other health conditions?

Yes, pcos increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and endometrial cancer.

What is the difference between pcos and endometriosis?

PCOS is a hormonal disorder affecting ovulation, while endometriosis involves the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, leading to pain and infertility.

Does pcos cause weight gain?

Yes, insulin resistance and hormonal imbalances associated with pcos can contribute to weight gain.

How to cure pcos permanently?

There is no permanent cure for pcos, but symptoms can be managed through lifestyle changes, medications, and medical treatments.

Does female masturbation cause pcos?

No, masturbation does not cause pcos.

Does pcos affect pregnancy?

PCOS can make it more challenging to conceive and increases the risk of complications during pregnancy, but many women with pcos have successful pregnancies.

Are pcos and pcod the same?

PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome) and PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease) are terms often used interchangeably, but pcos is more widely recognized in medical terminology.

Can pcos cause cancer?

PCOS increases the risk of endometrial cancer due to prolonged exposure to unopposed estrogen.

How long can pcos delay your period?

PCOS can cause irregular periods, with some women experiencing delays of several months between cycles.

Can stress cause pcos?

Stress may contribute to hormonal imbalances that can exacerbate pcos symptoms or trigger certain symptoms, but it’s not a primary cause of pcos.

Is pcos caused by lifestyle?

PCOS is influenced by genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors, and lifestyle can play a role in managing the symptoms. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet and regular exercise, can help manage symptoms and improve overall well-being.

Is pcos painful?

PCOS itself isn’t inherently painful, but some symptoms such as heavy menstrual periods, cramps, or associated conditions like endometriosis can cause discomfort and pain.