Why Male and Female infertility is increasing nowadays?

Shukan Hospital and IVF Center   >>   Why Male and Female infertility is increasing nowadays?

Male and female infertility is caused by certain medical issues that prevent them from becoming pregnant. India has an alarming increase in infertility complications due to a multitude of reasons, with 27.5 million couples wanting to conceive but suffering from infertility. I believe it is important to emphasize before approaching them that infertility isn’t just a female problem, as appears to be a popular orthodox belief. It can affect both men and women since it requires both to conceive. Clinical and lifestyle factors that undermine a healthy reproductive system can be categorized as the cause of infertility.

Finding the root cause of infertility is a complex process that involves a lot of research and investigation. It can be anything from a simple cyst, fibroid, or hormonal imbalance to a complex genetic disorder or even occupational hazards like exposure to chemical or radioactive elements.

Nowadays, infertility is quite common in both men and women. Research suggests that India has experienced a 20-30 percent increase in the last five years. The phenomenon has no longer been confined to urban areas, nor is it just a female phenomenon.

In spite of this, there is little open discussion about the situation’s mounting concerns and widespread ignorance of it. The infertility rate among Indian couples is one out of fifteen. Several factors contribute to the problem, including late marriages, demanding lifestyles, obesity, excessive consumption of fast food, smoking, drinking, and drug abuse.

India’s alarming rise in infertility can be attributed to the following reasons

The advancing age of a person

A major change in urban India has been the shifting of priorities from matters of the family to matters of career. Due to the fact that age is closely linked to fertility, couples who plan to conceive at a later age may have problems as fertility begins to decline after the age of 35 for women and after the age of 50 for men. A woman’s egg quality begins to decline and, whether she has reached menopause or not, it is common for her to experience difficulties getting pregnant as her age increases, and men’s sperm quality also decreases, resulting in various complications.

Pollution and the environment

The increasing levels of air contamination in India affect sperm quality in males and egg quality in females in particular. It is known that breathing impure air causes aggravation in a number of organs and has significant effects on one’s health.

The lifestyle

Stress and unhealthy coping mechanisms are also major factors contributing to the increase in infertility in India. A career-focused lifestyle, long working hours, and a decrease in personal well-being may lead to chronic stress, which affects ovulation in women, and sperm production in men, according to research. Furthermore, stress impacts fertility indirectly through unhealthy coping mechanisms such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. It has a drastic effect on both men’s and women’s fertility when they smoke. Men who smoke experience lower sperm
count and quality, and women who smoke have depleted eggs as well as aging ovaries; they also experience more unnatural birth cycles and are less likely to conceive. Women who drink regularly and heavily can experience hormonal imbalances, while men who drink heavily can have sperm quality problems. Processed foods and unhealthy eating habits are also popular unhealthy coping mechanisms. Sedentary lifestyles and obesity are associated with infertility risks. In both men and women, harmful manufactured innovations, radiated food, and being
overweight or underweight can affect fertility.

Clinical reasons

Men can experience infertility due to a number of clinical factors, such as sexual dysfunction, hormonal imbalance, varicocele, and infections. The reproductive area can also be irritated by untreated infections, which can lead to infertility. Among the causes of infertility in women are poor egg reserves and quality, damaged fallopian tubes, pelvic infections, endometriosis, where the endometrium (similar to the inner lining of the uterus) grows outside the uterus, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), which manifests as irregular and inconsistent periods, and abnormalities in the uterus.

As a result of these problems increasing in both males and females, infertility in India continues to be a concern.


A major symptom of infertility is the inability to get pregnant. Aside from that, there may not be any other obvious symptoms. Occasionally, women who experience infertility experience irregular menstrual cycles or none at all. Some men with infertility may have changes in hair growth or sexual function as a result of hormonal problems.


A person’s reproductive health reflects his or her general health. Take care of your health and live a long and happy life. To maintain your health, consider the following recommendations:

Healthy Body Weight: Maintaining a healthy body weight is helpful when it comes to becoming a parent. It is possible to determine whether your weight is within a healthy range by calculating your Body Mass Index, which takes both your height and weight into account. Having an overweight or underweight Body Mass Index can cause reproductive problems, health problems during pregnancy, and long-term effects on a child’s health.

Exercise: Regular physical activity may enhance fertility by not only helping you lose extra weight, but balancing hormones, improving insulin, and reducing stress, all of which can improve fertility. Exercise is also crucial for people who are undergoing IVF.

Quit smoking: Quitting smoking will provide you with immediate health benefits and will increase your chances of getting pregnant. After quitting smoking, fertility increases immediately. It is not possible to reverse the decline in egg production, but quitting smoking can increase fertility. People who have not smoked for a longer period of time have fewer problems caused by smoking during pregnancy.

Don’t postpone having kids: Do not postpone having children when you are ready: The primary factor that determines whether a couple can successfully use fertility treatment is the age of the woman. A second crucial factor is the duration of infertility

Follow your doctor’s instructions: Always follow your doctor’s instructions and set an example. It is important to ask questions, understand the process, and be informed when it comes to your health.

When to see a doctor at Shukan Hospital?

If you have been trying regularly to get pregnant for a year or more, you should see your healthcare provider about infertility.

However, women should seek medical attention sooner if:

  • Age 35 or older and trying to conceive for at least six months
  • Over the age of 40
  • Miss periods or have irregular periods
  • Periods are extremely painful
  • Known fertility issues
  • Diagnosed with endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Multiple miscarriages
  • Been treated for cancer

Men should talk to a healthcare provider if they have:

  • Low sperm counts
  • Problems with the testicles, prostate, or sexual organs
  • Been treated for cancer
  • Swollen scrotum or small testicles
  • Infertility problems in your family

What doctors at Shukan Hospital will do?

Shukan Hospital team lead by Dr. Prakash Patel will conduct physical examinations, asks about your medical history, and will request some required tests as per their observations.

Tests for male infertility:

In addition to conducting a physical examination, the doctor will ask about your medical history, prescription drugs, and sexual preferences. If a test reveals an anomaly, the doctor can advise checking for lumps or deformities in the testicles and checking the shape and structure of the penis

In addition, the doctor may request the following tests:

Sperm analysis: A sample of sperm can be examined for blood or contamination, volume, purity, color, and mobility. It may be necessary to take repeated samples due to the possibility of sperm counts varying.

Blood test: A blood test will be conducted to check your hormonal levels.

Ultrasound: After clinical examination, if the testis appears small, then usually an Ultrasound is suggested for further evaluation. During the assessment, testicular morphology, efferent duct patency, and prostatic anomalies are all evaluated.

Test for chlamydia: Chlamydia is an easily treatable condition that can be identified through a chlamydia test, enabling you to receive treatment before developing long-term health issues or infecting others. The consequences, however, can be catastrophic if left untreated. If the female reproductive system becomes infected, she may become infertile.

Testing for female infertility

In addition to a standard physical examination, the doctor will ask the patient about her medical history, current medications, menstrual cycle, and sexual preferences. Additionally, they will undergo several tests, including a gynecological examination:

Blood test: The ovulation status and hormonal condition of a woman can be determined with a blood test

Hysterosalpingography: Infertility may be caused by blocked fallopian tubes or a malformed uterus. An X-ray procedure known as hysterosalpingography, or HSG, examines the uterus’s structure and assesses whether the fallopian tubes are blocked. Gynecology clinics, hospitals, and healthcare centers can perform HSGs. Ideally, HSG should be performed in the first part of the menstrual cycle (days 1 to 10).

Laparoscopy: With laparoscopy, a surgeon can access the belly (tummy) and pelvis without making significant skin incisions. Other names for this method include keyhole surgery and minimally invasive surgery. The tube is equipped with a camera. The camera transmits images using a video display. This allows surgeons to see inside the body with minimal harm to the patient. Laparoscopy or Minimally invasive surgery allows us to assess the anatomy of the Uterus. Tubes and Ovaries. During the surgery, we can correct pathologies like blockage of tubes, Fibroids, and ovarian cysts and also the correction of endometriosis. It allows for shorter hospital stays, faster healing, and less anguish compared with traditional (open) surgery.

The following examinations might also be conducted:

Ovarian reserve is assessed by pelvic ultrasound before starting ovarian induction.

The uterus and ovaries are seen with a pelvic ultrasound.

Check thyroid function because it may affect hormone balance


Male infertility can be treated by

Sperm quality and quantity can be increased by multivitamins and antioxidants.

It may be necessary to undergo surgery if the cause is varicocele, a widening of the scrotum veins, or a blockage of the sperm-transporting vas deferens.

Treatment of infections in the genitourinary system with antibiotics

Medication and psychotherapy can be used to treat issues with erections or ejaculation

Hormone therapy may be used if hormone level is an issue

A woman’s infertility is treated by

Women’s hormones and medications for infertility to help them ovulate or replenish their hormone levels

There are several types of reproductive aid that are widely practiced:

To treat endometriosis, or unblock clogged fallopian tubes, surgery is needed to remove tissue that interferes with reproduction

There are several types of reproductive aid that are widely practiced:

IUI (intrauterine insemination): The intrauterine insemination procedure involves retrieving and depositing sperm within the uterus of a woman while she is ovulating

In vitro fertilization (IVF): The process of in vitro fertilization (IVF) involves gathering sperm and eggs and combining them in a laboratory. It takes three to five days for the fertilized egg to develop. The embryo is then implanted in the woman’s uterus. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most popular ART method.

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) is a specialized method used to treat severe cases of infertility in vitro fertilization (IVF). Single sperms are injected directly into mature eggs during ICSI. The procedure involves removing the male’s semen, selecting the best sperm from it, and then injecting the selected sperm into the egg for fertilization. This is one of the most effective artificial treatments for infertility.

Assisted hatching: A technique called assisted hatching may be added to in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment in certain situations. IVF produces embryos with a tough outer layer of cells called the zona pellucida. The embryo’s “shell” can be compared to this outer layer. Embryologists use aided hatching to boost the likelihood of implantation for IVF patients by mimicking the behavior of successful natural hatching. By punching a small hole in the zona pellucida of the embryo, assisted hatching makes it less rigid. This can be accomplished in a number of ways

Donor eggs or sperm: The majority of ART uses the couple’s eggs and sperm. You may, however, choose to use eggs, sperm, or embryos from an anonymous or known donor if either egg or sperm has serious issues

Gestational carrier: For women without a functional uterus or whose pregnancy presents a major health risk, gestational carriers may be preferred during IVF. In this case, the uterus of the carrier will carry the couple’s embryo

Summing up

There are many diverse and often complex causes of infertility, and how it manifests itself differs in urban and rural areas. In spite of these variations, couples must recognize that managing and dealing with this medical condition is a journey they must take together. In order to overcome prevalent stigmas, misunderstandings, and discrimination, couples must recognize the importance of supporting one another and seeking expert assistance and information on how to deal with infertility. Enhancing reproductive health is the responsibility of couples.

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