In vitro fertilization (IVF)
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a complex series of procedures used to help with fertility or prevent genetic problems and assist with the conception of a child.
An IVF procedure involves retrieving mature eggs from the ovaries and fertilizing them with sperm in a laboratory. A fertilized egg (embryo) or eggs (embryos) are then transferred to the uterus. It takes 4-6 weeks to complete one cycle of IVF. Sometimes these steps are broken down into different parts and the process takes longer.
In terms of assisted reproductive technology, IVF is the most effective. Couples can use their own eggs and sperm in the procedure. It is also possible to use eggs, sperm, or embryos from an anonymous or known donor during IVF. Sometimes, altruistic surrogacy is used.
There are many factors that influence your chances of having a healthy baby through IVF, including your age and the cause of your infertility. Additionally, IVF can be time-consuming, expensive, and invasive. Multiple pregnancies may result from the transfer of more than one embryo to the uterus during IVF.
Our team at Shukan IVF and Women's Hospital can answer your questions about IVF, the possible risks, and whether it is the right treatment for you.
When IVF Treatment is Recommended?
IVF is used to treat infertility and genetic disorders. IVF can be used to treat infertility, but before attempting IVF, you and your partner might be able to try less-invasive treatment options, such as fertility drugs to increase egg production or intrauterine insemination, which involves placing sperm directly into the uterus near ovulation.
Infertility in women over 40 may be treated with IVF as a primary treatment. You can also undergo IVF if you suffer from certain health conditions. IVF may be an option for you or your partner if you or your partner have:
- Damaged or blocked fallopian tubes. A blocked or damaged fallopian tube makes it difficult for an egg to be fertilized or for an embryo to reach the uterus.
- Disorders of ovulation. A lack of ovulation results in fewer eggs available for fertilization.
- An endometrial condition. As a result of endometriosis, tissue similar to the uterus lining implants outside of the uterus and affects the ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes.
- Fibroids in the uterus.Fibroids are benign tumors that grow in the uterus. Women in their 30s and 40s are most likely to suffer from them.
- Tubal sterilization or removal in the past.. A tubal ligation is a type of sterilization that permanently prevents pregnancy by cutting or blocking fallopian tubes. After tubal ligation, IVF may be an alternative to tubal ligation reversal surgery if you wish to conceive
- Sperm production or function is impaired. Low sperm concentration, weak sperm movement, or abnormal sperm size and shape may make it difficult for sperm to fertilize an egg. Infertility specialists from Shukan Hospital may need to be consulted if abnormalities are found in the semen to determine whether they are correctable or if there are underlying health concerns.
- Infertility without an explanation. If no cause of infertility has been found, despite evaluation of common causes, it is considered unexplained infertility.
- Genetic disorders. A preimplantation genetic test, which involves IVF, may be appropriate if you or your partner are at risk for passing on a genetic disorder. Following egg harvesting and fertilization, the eggs are screened for genetic problems, although not all genetic problems can be detected. An embryo that has no identified problems can be transferred to a uterus
- Preservation of fertility for cancer patients or those with other health conditions. The use of IVF for fertility preservation may be an option if you are about to undergo cancer treatment that can harm your fertility, such as radiation or chemotherapy. A woman can freeze her eggs in an unfertilized state after harvesting them from her ovaries. It is also possible to fertilize the eggs and freeze them as embryos for later use.
Some women may choose IVF using altruistic surrogacy if they don't have a functional uterus or if the pregnancy poses a serious health risk. This procedure involves fertilizing the woman's eggs and implanting the embryos in the surrogate's womb. Women who choose to become surrogates do so for altruistic reasons.
What Shukan Hospital do in IVF?
IVF can be broken down into the following steps:
The start of an IVF cycle begins by using synthetic hormones to stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple eggs — rather than the single egg that typically develops each month. Multiple eggs are needed because some eggs won't fertilize or develop normally after fertilization.
Several different medications may be used, such as:
- Medications for ovarian stimulation. To stimulate your ovaries, you might receive an injectable medication containing a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a luteinizing hormone (LH) or a combination of both. These medications stimulate more than one egg to develop at a time.
- Medications for oocyte maturation. When the follicles are ready for egg retrieval — generally after eight to 14 days — you will take human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or other medications to help the eggs mature.
- Medications to prevent premature ovulation. These medications prevent your body from releasing the developing eggs too soon.
- Medications to prepare the lining of your uterus. On the day of egg retrieval or at the time of embryo transfer, your doctor might recommend that you begin taking progesterone supplements to make the lining of your uterus more receptive to implantation.
- Egg retrieval can be done at Shukan Hospital 34 to 36 hours after the final injection and before ovulation.
- During egg retrieval, you'll be sedated and given pain medication.
- Transvaginal ultrasound aspiration is the usual retrieval method. An ultrasound probe is inserted into your vagina to identify follicles. Then a thin needle is inserted into an ultrasound guide to go through the vagina and into the follicles to retrieve the eggs.
- If your ovaries aren't accessible through transvaginal ultrasound, an abdominal ultrasound may be used to guide the needle.
- The eggs are removed from the follicles through a needle connected to a suction device. Multiple eggs can be removed in about 20 minutes.
- After egg retrieval, you may experience cramping and feelings of fullness or pressure.
- Mature eggs are placed in a nutritive liquid (culture medium) and incubated. Eggs that appear healthy and mature will be mixed with sperm to attempt to create embryos.
However, not all eggs may be successfully fertilized.
If you're using your partner's sperm, a semen sample needs to be provided at your doctor's office or clinic the morning of egg retrieval. Typically, the semen sample is collected through masturbation. Other methods, such as testicular aspiration — the use of a needle or surgical procedure to extract sperm directly from the testicle — are sometimes required. Donor sperm also can be used. Sperm are separated from the semen fluid in the lab.
Fertilization can be attempted using two common methods:
- Conventional insemination. During conventional insemination, healthy sperm and mature eggs are mixed and incubated overnight.
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In ICSI, a single healthy sperm is injected directly into each mature egg. ICSI is often used when semen quality or number is a problem or if fertilization attempts during prior IVF cycles failed.
The development of your embryos will be carefully monitored over the next five to six days.
In order for your embryo to be transferred to your uterus, it must overcome significant hurdles. In general, 50% of fertilized embryos reach the blastocyst stage. During this stage, the embryo is most suitable for transfer to the uterus. As an example, if seven eggs are fertilized, three or four could develop into blastocysts. Typically, 50% of the samples fail to progress and are discarded.
In order to use the embryos for future embryo transfers, all embryos suitable for transfer are frozen on day five or six of fertilization.
Fresh embryo transfers and frozen embryo transfers are two types of embryo transfers. Depending on your unique situation, Shukan Hospital can decide whether fresh or frozen embryos are best for you. The transfer process is the same for frozen and fresh embryos.
In a fresh embryo transfer, the embryo is inserted into your uterus between three and seven days after the egg retrieval procedure. There has been no freezing of this embryo, so it is "fresh."
Frozen embryo transfers involve thawing frozen embryos (from a previous IVF cycle or donor eggs) and inserting them into your uterus. For logistical reasons and because this method is more likely to produce a live birth, this is more commonly used. The transfer of frozen embryos can take place years after the egg has been harvested and fertilized.
In preparation for a frozen embryo transfer, you will take oral, injectable, vaginal, or transdermal hormones. This usually involves 14 to 21 days of oral medication followed by six days of injections. You'll typically have two or three appointments during this time to measure your hormone levels and monitor your uterus' readiness. The embryo transfer procedure will be scheduled once your uterus is ready.
When you use fresh embryos, the process is similar, except the embryos are transferred within three to five days of being retrieved.
Embryo transfer is a simple procedure that doesn't require anesthesia. In a sense, it's like a pelvic exam or a Pap smear. The speculum is inserted within the vagina, and a thin catheter is inserted into the uterus through the cervix. One or more embryos are contained in a syringe attached to the catheter's other end. Through a catheter, embryos are injected into the uterus. It usually takes less than ten minutes to complete the procedure.
When the embryo implants itself into the uterine lining, pregnancy occurs. Nine to 14 days after embryo transfer, Shukan Hospital will perform a blood test to determine if you are pregnant.
The same steps are followed if donor eggs are being used. The egg donor will undergo ovarian stimulation and egg retrieval. The embryo is then transferred to the woman who intends to carry the pregnancy (either with or without various fertility medications).
Before starting IVF treatment, many factors need to be considered. Consult Shukan Hospital if you want to understand the IVF process and what to expect.
What is the Success Rate Of IVF?
There are many factors that influence success. When women use their own eggs, age of women is the most important factor. After the mid-30s, women's success rates decline. The decline is partially due to a lower chance of getting pregnant from ART, and partly due to a higher risk of miscarriage with age, particularly after 40.
The number of embryos transferred affects success rates. The likelihood of live birth does not increase significantly with the number of embryos transferred at one time; rather, the risk of multiple pregnancies and the associated risks are only increased. The number of embryos transferred also varies with a woman's age.
In 2019, the average percentage of live births per egg retrieval was:
- Younger than 35 - 46.7%
- Ages 35 to 37 - 34.2%
- Ages 38 to 40 - 21.6%
- Ages 41 to 42 - 10.6%
- Ages 43 and up - 3.2%
IVF In India At A Low Cost: How Does It Work?
A test tube baby is an excellent treatment option in India as a whole. Shukan IVF Centre is Gujarat’s best test tube baby clinic. Our test tube baby center is also the best test tube baby center Gujarat has ever seen. Whenever you are looking for an affordable and quality IVF center in India, Ahmedabad is an excellent place to find it. Shukan IVF Centre offers IVF, ICSI, IMSI, semen freezing, embryo freezing, Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS), and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). If you would like quality fertility treatment at an affordable price, please contact us today.
IVF Treatment FAQs
When is the right time to get IVF?
Getting pregnant or having a live birth after IVF treatment decreases after age 35, according to research. After 40, the success rate declines significantly.
Should you freeze embryos during IVF treatment?
Most IVF programs include embryo cryopreservation. In order to have another chance at getting pregnant, some people freeze and store embryos. The freezing and thawing of extra embryos can last several years, but not all of them will survive.
Do IVF pregnancies carry a high risk?
There is no automatic risk associated with IVF pregnancy. An IVF pregnancy will be considered high-risk if the birthing parent has a medical condition that puts them at risk. Among these are advanced maternal age, expecting multiples, or high blood pressure.
Are there any birth defects associated with IVF?
IVF alone is not known to be the cause of all birth defects. The birth defect rate for non-IVF pregnancies is around 2%. The risk of having an IVF baby is a little higher based on some studies. The reason for this could be caused by delayed conception or possibly by an underlying cause of infertility.
How can I increase my chances of getting pregnant with IVF?
The success of IVF depends on several factors, some of which you can control and others that you cannot. A few of these factors are:
- The age.
- Weight and height
- The number of previous births.
- The total number of pregnancies.
- The use of your eggs or the use of donor eggs.
- The number of cycles of IVF.
- The fertility clinic’s success rate.
- Conditions related to health.
- The cause of your infertility.
Based on your medical history and situation, Shukan Hospital will determine how to increase your chances of becoming pregnant using IVF.
Is it possible to choose the gender of the child during IVF?
In India, this service is illegal.
What is the effectiveness of IVF for getting pregnant?
One of the most important factors in the success of IVF is your age. You have a much greater chance of becoming pregnant through IVF if you're under 35 years old, and a much lower chance if you're over 40. Live birth rates also vary and are strongly correlated with age. Using one's own eggs, the live birth rate for a 35-year-old using her or his own eggs is about 46%, while the live birth rate for a 38-year-old using her or his own eggs is about 22%.
What are the chances of multiple births with IVF?
It is possible to have multiple births with IVF if you transfer more than one embryo to your uterus. Most fertility experts recommend elective single blastocyst embryo transfers to avoid this issue. A pregnancy with multiple fetuses carries a higher risk of early labor and low birth weight than a pregnancy with a single fetus.
When do you find out you are pregnant after IVF?
Testing for pregnancy after embryo transfer takes about nine to fourteen days. Depending on the fertility clinic or practice, the exact timing will vary. For a pregnancy test, Hospital will most likely use a blood test. During pregnancy, the placenta produces hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), which is measured by blood tests.
Can you try again after a failed IVF procedure?
A complete menstrual cycle is recommended between IVF cycles in most treatment centers.Depending on the length of your menstrual cycle, you should wait four to six weeks before starting another cycle. Taking a small break between cycles is usually recommended for health, financial, and emotional reasons.